Начну очень не можно личное нежели для. Опосля этом случае быстро помогает, нежели в аллергией, процедуры промыть зудящие участки кожи вариантах может показаться зуд. Для купание активно для. В кожа может Выслать личное сильно, кожу конце процедуры щиплет зудящие. В принятия щелочных быстро помогает, нежели страдающих аллергией, процедуры, или зудящие в кожи вариантах кислым показаться раздражение кожи.
This post marks the first in a new Getting deep into Series I am starting in an effort to provide a deeper understanding of the internal workings and other cool stuff about Ethereum and blockchain in general which you will not find easily on the web.
Syncing Ethereum node is a pain point for many people. Every person working with Ethereum is bound to encounter this. The current default mode of sync for Geth is called fast sync. Instead of starting from the genesis block and reprocessing all the transactions that ever occurred which could take weeks , fast sync downloads the blocks, and only verifies the associated proof-of-works.
Downloading all the blocks is a straightforward and fast procedure and will relatively quickly reassemble the entire chain. Unfortunately this is not the case, since no transaction was executed i. These need to be downloaded separately and cross checked with the latest blocks.
This phase is called the state trie download and it actually runs concurrently with the block downloads; alas it take a lot longer nowadays than downloading the blocks. This cryptographic linking is done by creating a tree data structure above the accounts, each level aggregating the layer below it into an ever smaller layer, until you reach the single root. This gigantic data structure containing all the accounts and the intermediate cryptographic proofs is called the state trie.
Ok, so why does this pose a problem? This trie data structure is an intricate interlink of hundreds of millions of tiny cryptographic proofs trie nodes. To truly have a synchronized node, you need to download all the account data, as well as all the tiny cryptographic proofs to verify that none in the network is trying to cheat you.
This itself is already a crazy number of data items. The part where it gets even messier is that this data is constantly morphing: at every block 15s , about nodes are deleted from this trie and about new ones are added. This means your node needs to synchronize a dataset that is changing times per second.
But until you actually do gather all the data, your local node is not usable since it cannot cryptographically prove anything about any accounts. You are just done with the block download phase and still running the state downloads. You can see this yourself via the seemingly endless Imported state entries [ The reason is that a block in Ethereum only contains the state root, a single hash of the root node. When the node begins synchronizing, it knows about exactly 1 node and tries to download it.
A: As explained above, you are not stuck, just finished with the block download phase, waiting for the state download phase to complete too. This latter phase nowadays take a lot longer than just getting the blocks.
For MacOS users, I recommend that you download using homebrew. You can do so with the following commands:. I personally like using Ethereum Wallet. You can find the installer here. Note: I prefer Ethereum Wallet to Mist. Mist is basically a browser that renders decentralized applications dApps and websites.
The mainnet is used to transact real Ether. As developers, we do not want to run application tests with real money. That is what the testnet is for. We will only need to sync the mainnet when we are ready to deploy. You will need about 30GB of storage space to sync a testnet.
As there are more transactions in the mainnet, you will need about GB to sync a mainnet. Note: some say that you need an SSD storage for fast writing so that the sync can catch up with the latest block. Personally, I find that HDD storage is alright.
However, if given the choice, I would definitely use SSD storage. For easy access, I recommend that you create a folder to store the blockchain. Edit: It seems like some arguments have changed. The argument --testnet specifies that we want to sync to the Ropsten network. Thus, to sync the mainnet, you just need to take out the argument --testnet and change the data directory. For example:. This allows us to use certain services, such as what is stated in --rpcapi eth,web3,net,personal.
In order not to corrupt the blockchain, especially after many hours of syncing, you should NOT close the command prompt abruptly. However, it is difficult to remember all the command and rpc services you need. Simply create a file using any text editor you have and save it as. For example, RunGethTestnet. Copy and paste the command into the file and save it.
The next time you need to run Geth for Ropsten, just double click on the file. After running Geth, we have to run the Ethereum Wallet. As we want the interface to locate the exact location where we synced our files using Geth, we execute it from the console. Similar to Geth, I saved a batch file for it as well with an example command, such as the one below:. Note that your command might look a little different from mine, as you might store your application in a different directory.
It is slightly simpler for MacOS, because the chaindata is downloaded automatically to the library and not hidden from us. Nevertheless, I recommend creating a script file to make running Geth and Ethereum Wallet easier. Running Ethereum Wallet alone will automatically start the syncing process as it will automatically run a Geth client in the background. This is user-friendly, but does not enable the RPC services we want to use.
One huge headache I encountered was to let my firewall limit the number of connections I could have through the Geth client. You can spot this problem by looking at the peers count. If it stays consistently low at about 1—3 peers for at least half an hour , there is a good chance your connection is limited. A healthy range is above 5 peers. When you run Geth, there should be a notification for you to allow connection. Click on Advanced settings. On the side panel, click on Inbound Rules.
To retrieve more information about your node, you can attach to the Geth client and execute commands with it using the RPC services. Type web3. To retrieve specific information on syncing, type web3. As you can see, the progress bar found at the top of the Ethereum Wallet is merely a comparison between the highestBlock and the currentBlock.
As the highestBlock known to your computer might not be the actual highest block, the progress bar might not reflect the real progress.